*Containment *and* insertion* indicators tell the solver to put one piece of text inside another. Containment involves X surrounding Y (result = Y inside X), as in ‘Irish playwright holds party’ for SHAW contains DO = SHADOW; insertion means X being put into Y (result = X inside Y), as in ‘worker entering annexe’ for ANT inserted into WING = WANTING. In general, any term which suggests something being contained by something else is likely to be acceptable, although setters should avoid ones which are normally used only in a restricted context (eg ‘punches’, which relates specifically to piercing using a tool). Where the indicator is a verb, other forms are possible, such as the infinitive (eg ‘naughty to embrace king’ for BAD contains R = BARD). Note that a few verbs, such as ‘assume’ and ‘inspire’ can be used (in advanced crosswords) to indicate either containment *or* insertion (‘He inspired the fresh air’ / ‘He was inspired with ambition’). Setters should be careful when using certain past participles with ‘by’ – for instance, ‘Mary imprisoned by Elizabeth’ doesn’t imply imprisonment within Elizabeth.

*Date last modified: *19/1/24

*Recent changes: *(30/11/23) added *opening/opens/opened by* (open = ‘to make an opening in’), their previous omission being an oversight, (17/12) added *shipping/ships/shipped by* (ship = ‘to put, receive, or take on board’), (18/12) added *taken in by* (rectifying omission), (19/1/24) added *barking/barks* (bark = ‘to encrust’), *binding/binds/bound by*, *coated in/with* (in the active form the subject is the person doing the coating), *crusts*, *garments* (garment = ‘to clothe or cover’, OED confirms figurative use), *masking/masks/masked* by (mask = ‘to cloak’), *straddling/straddles/straddled by*, *bestriding/bestrides/bestridden by*, *cops* (cop = ‘to catch’), *bookends*

Indicator | Alternative form(s) | Variety | Type | |
---|---|---|---|---|

aboard | Insertion | Standard | ||

about | Containment | Standard | ||

absorbed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

absorbing | absorbs | Containment | Standard | V*A |

accepted by | Insertion | Standard | ||

accepting | accepts | Containment | Standard | |

accommodated by | Insertion | Standard | ||

accommodating | accommodates | Containment | Standard | |

admitted by | Insertion | Standard | ||

admitting | admits | Containment | Standard | |

adopted by | Insertion | Standard | ||

adopting | adopts | Containment | Standard | |

ambient | Insertion | Advanced | ||

amid | amidst | Insertion | Standard | |

among | Insertion | Standard | ||

apprehended by | Insertion | Standard | ||

apprehending | apprehends | Containment | Standard | |

around | Containment | Standard | ||

arrested by | Insertion | Standard | ||

arresting | arrests | Containment | Standard | V*N,V*A |

assuming | assumes/assumed by | Containment | Advanced | |

assuming | assumes/assumed by | Insertion | Advanced | |

bagged by | Insertion | Standard | ||

bagging | bags | Containment | Standard | V*N |

bailing | bails | Containment | Advanced | V*N |

barking | barks | Containment | Advanced | |

bathed in | Insertion | Standard | ||

bathing | bathes | Containment | Standard | |

bearing | bears | Containment | Standard | V*N |

bedded in | Insertion | Standard | ||

bedding | beds | Containment | Advanced | V*N |

beset by | beset with | Insertion | Standard | |

besetting | besets | Containment | Standard | |

besieged by | Insertion | Standard | ||

besieging | besieges | Containment | Standard | |

bestridden by | Insertion | Standard | ||

bestriding | bestrides | Containment | Standard | |

binding | binds | Containment | Standard | V*N |

biting | bites | Containment | Standard | V*N,V*A |

bitten by | Insertion | Standard | ||

blankets | Containment | Standard | V*N | |

boarded by | Containment | Standard | ||

boarding | boards | Insertion | Standard | V*N,V*A |

bones | Containment | Advanced | V*N | |

bookends | Containment | Standard | V*N | |

bordered by | Insertion | Standard | ||

bordering | borders | Containment | Standard | V*N |

bored by | Containment | Standard | ||

boring | bores | Insertion | Standard | V*N,V*A |

borne by | Insertion | Standard | ||

bottled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

bottling | bottles | Containment | Standard | V*N |

bound by | Insertion | Standard | ||

bounded by | Insertion | Standard | ||

bounding | bounds | Containment | Standard | V*N |

boxed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

boxing | boxes | Containment | Standard | V*N |

bracketed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

bracketing | brackets | Containment | Standard | V*N |

breaking | breaks | Insertion | Advanced | V*N |

broken by | Containment | Advanced | ||

bunged by | Containment | Standard | ||

bunging | bungs | Insertion | Standard | V*N |

buried in | Insertion | Standard | ||

burying | buries | Containment | Standard | |

canned by | Insertion | Standard | ||

cans | Containment | Standard | V*N | |

captured by | Insertion | Standard | ||

capturing | captures | Containment | Standard | |

carried by | Insertion | Standard | ||

carrying | carries | Containment | Standard | |

cased by | Insertion | Standard | ||

casing | cases | Containment | Standard | V*N |

catching | catches | Containment | Standard | V*N |

caught by | caught in | Insertion | Standard | |

chaps | Insertion | Advanced | V*N | |

charged with | Containment | Standard | ||

charging | charges | Insertion | Standard | V*N |

checked by | Insertion | Standard | ||

checking | checks | Containment | Standard | V*N |

choked by | Insertion | Standard | ||

choking | chokes | Containment | Standard | |

circled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

circling | circles | Containment | Standard | V*N |

circumvented by | Insertion | Standard | ||

circumventing | circumvents | Containment | Standard | |

clad in | clad with | Insertion | Standard | |

cladding | clads | Containment | Standard | V*N |

clasped by | Insertion | Standard | ||

clasping | clasps | Containment | Standard | V*N |

clenched in | Insertion | Standard | ||

clenching | clenches | Containment | Standard | |

clings to | clinging to | Containment | Standard | |

clipped by | Insertion | Standard | ||

clipping | clips | Containment | Standard | V*N |

cloaked in | Insertion | Standard | ||

cloaking | cloaks | Containment | Standard | V*N |

closed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

closing in | closes in | Containment | Standard | |

clothed by | clothed in | Insertion | Standard | |

clothing | clothes | Containment | Standard | V*N |

clutched by | Insertion | Standard | ||

clutching | clutches | Containment | Standard | V*N |

coated in | coated with | Insertion | Standard | |

collared by | Insertion | Standard | ||

collaring | collars | Containment | Standard | V*N |

compasses | Containment | Advanced | ||

comprehended by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

comprehending | comprehends | Containment | Advanced | |

compressed in | Insertion | Standard | ||

compressing | compresses | Containment | Standard | V*N |

comprised by | Insertion | Standard | ||

comprising | comprises | Containment | Advanced | |

confined in | Insertion | Standard | ||

confining | confines | Containment | Standard | V*N |

conserved by | Insertion | Standard | ||

conserving | conserves | Containment | Standard | V*N |

constrained by | Insertion | Standard | ||

constraining | constrains | Containment | Standard | |

consumed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

consuming | consumes | Containment | Standard | V*A |

contained by | contained in | Insertion | Standard | |

containing | contains | Containment | Standard | |

cops | Containment | Standard | V*N | |

covered by | covered in | Insertion | Standard | |

covering | covers | Containment | Standard | V*N,V*A |

cracked by | Containment | Advanced | ||

cracking | cracks | Insertion | Advanced | V*N,V*A |

cramped by | Insertion | Standard | ||

cramping | cramps | Containment | Standard | V*N |

crashed by | gatecrashed by | Containment | Standard | |

crashes | gatecrashes | Insertion | Advanced | |

cribbed by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

cribbing | cribs | Containment | Advanced | V*N |

crossed by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

crossing | crosses | Containment | Advanced | V*N |

crowded by | Insertion | Standard | ||

crowded with | Containment | Standard | ||

crowding | crowds | Containment | Standard | V*N |

crowding | crowds | Insertion | Standard | V*N |

crushed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

crushing | crushes | Containment | Standard | V*N,V*A |

crusts | Containment | Advanced | V*N | |

cuddled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

cuddling | cuddles | Containment | Standard | V*N |

cups | Containment | Advanced | V*N | |

curbed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

curbing | curbs | Containment | Standard | V*N |

cutting | cuts | Insertion | Standard | V*N |

decked by | Insertion | Standard | ||

decking | decks | Containment | Standard | V*N |

detained by | Insertion | Standard | ||

detaining | detains | Containment | Standard | |

devoured by | Insertion | Standard | ||

devouring | devours | Containment | Standard | |

digested by | Insertion | Standard | ||

digesting | digests | Containment | Standard | V*N |

divided by | Containment | Standard | ||

dividing | divides | Insertion | Standard | |

dons | Insertion | Standard | V*N | |

drawing in | draws in | Containment | Standard | |

drawn in by | Insertion | Standard | ||

drilled by | Containment | Standard | ||

drilling | drills | Insertion | Standard | V*N |

drinking | drinks | Containment | Standard | V*N |

drunk | Insertion | Standard | V*A | |

eaten by | Insertion | Standard | ||

eating | eats | Containment | Standard | |

edged by | Insertion | Standard | ||

edging | edges | Containment | Standard | V*N |

embedded in | Insertion | Standard | ||

embedding | embeds | Containment | Advanced | |

embodied by | Insertion | Standard | ||

embodying | embodies | Containment | Standard | |

embraced by | Insertion | Standard | ||

embracing | embraces | Containment | Standard | V*N |

encapsulated by | Insertion | Standard | ||

encapsulating | encapsulates | Containment | Standard | |

encircled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

encircling | encircles | Containment | Standard | |

enclaves | Containment | Advanced | ||

enclosed by | enclosed in | Insertion | Standard | |

enclosing | encloses | Containment | Standard | |

encompassed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

encompassing | encompasses | Containment | Standard | |

encrusted | Insertion | Standard | ||

encrusting | encrusts | Containment | Standard | |

enfolded by | enfolded in | Insertion | Standard | |

enfolding | enfolds | Containment | Standard | |

engaged in | engaged by | Insertion | Standard | |

engaging | engages | Containment | Standard | |

engulfed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

engulfing | engulfs | Containment | Standard | |

enshrouded | Insertion | Standard | ||

enshrouding | enshrouds | Containment | Standard | |

ensnared in | Insertion | Standard | ||

ensnaring | ensnares | Containment | Standard | |

entered by | Containment | Standard | ||

entering | enters | Insertion | Standard | |

entertained by | Insertion | Standard | ||

entertaining | entertains | Containment | Standard | |

enthralled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

enthralling | enthralls | Containment | Standard | |

enveloped by | Insertion | Standard | ||

enveloping | envelops | Containment | Standard | |

environs | Containment | Advanced | ||

externally | Containment | Standard | ||

extra | Containment | Advanced | P*A,P*N | |

fed to | Insertion | Standard | ||

fenced by | Insertion | Standard | ||

fencing | fences | Containment | Standard | V*N |

filled with | filled by | Containment | Standard | |

filling | fills | Insertion | Standard | V*N |

flanked by | Insertion | Standard | ||

flanking | flanks | Containment | Standard | V*N |

folded in | Insertion | Advanced | ||

folding | folds | Containment | Advanced | V*N,V*A |

found in | Insertion | Standard | ||

framed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

framing | frames | Containment | Standard | V*N |

fringed with | Insertion | Standard | ||

fringing | fringes | Containment | Standard | V*N |

garments | Containment | Advanced | V*N | |

getting around | getting about | Containment | Standard | |

getting hold of | gets hold of | Containment | Standard | |

getting into | gets into | Insertion | Standard | |

gloves | Containment | Standard | V*N | |

gobbled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

gobbling | gobbles | Containment | Standard | |

going around | going about | Containment | Standard | |

going into | goes into | Insertion | Standard | |

grabbed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

grabbing | grabs | Containment | Standard | V*N |

grasped by | Insertion | Standard | ||

grasping | grasps | Containment | Standard | V*A |

griping | gripes | Containment | Advanced | |

gripped by | Insertion | Standard | ||

gripping | grips | Containment | Standard | |

guarded by | Insertion | Standard | ||

guarding | guards | Containment | Standard | |

gulped by | Insertion | Standard | ||

gulping | gulps | Containment | Standard | |

harboured by | Insertion | Standard | ||

harbouring | harbours | Containment | Standard | |

having | has | Containment | Standard | |

hedged by | Insertion | Standard | ||

hedging | hedges | Containment | Advanced | |

held by | held in | Insertion | Standard | |

hemming | hems | Containment | Standard | |

hidden by | hiding in | Insertion | Standard | |

hiding | hides | Containment | Standard | |

holding | holds | Containment | Standard | |

hoops | Containment | Standard | ||

hosted by | Insertion | Standard | ||

hosting | hosts | Containment | Standard | |

housed in | Insertion | Standard | ||

housing | houses | Containment | Standard | |

hugged by | Insertion | Standard | ||

hugging | hugs | Containment | Standard | |

implicated | Insertion | Standard | ||

implicated by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

implicating | implicates | Containment | Advanced | |

imprisoned in | Insertion | Standard | ||

imprisoning | imprisons | Containment | Standard | |

in | Insertion | Standard | ||

included in | Insertion | Standard | ||

including | includes | Containment | Standard | |

incorporated in | Insertion | Standard | ||

incorporating | incorporates | Containment | Standard | |

infiltrated by | Containment | Standard | ||

infiltrating | infiltrates | Insertion | Standard | |

inhabited by | Containment | Standard | ||

inhabiting | inhabits | Insertion | Standard | |

inhibited by | Insertion | Standard | ||

inhibiting | inhibits | Containment | Standard | |

injected with | Containment | Standard | ||

inside | Insertion | Standard | ||

inspired by | inspiring/inspires | Insertion | Standard | |

inspired with | inspired by | Containment | Advanced | |

inspiring | inspires | Containment | Advanced | |

installed in | Insertion | Standard | ||

installing | installs | Containment | Standard | |

interred in | Insertion | Standard | ||

interrupted by | Containment | Standard | ||

interrupting | interrupts | Insertion | Standard | |

intervening | Insertion | Standard | ||

introduced by | introduced to | Insertion | Standard | |

introducing | introduces | Containment | Standard | |

invested with | Insertion | Standard | ||

investing | invests | Containment | Advanced | |

involved in | Insertion | Standard | ||

involving | involves | Containment | Standard | |

jammed by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

jammed with | Containment | Standard | ||

jamming | jams | Containment | Advanced | |

jamming | jams | Insertion | Standard | |

keeping | keeps | Containment | Standard | |

kept by | kept in | Insertion | Standard | |

lagging | lags | Containment | Advanced | |

lapping | laps | Containment | Advanced | |

limited by | Insertion | Standard | ||

limiting | limits | Containment | Standard | |

lined with | Containment | Standard | ||

lining | lines | Insertion | Standard | |

lips | Containment | Advanced | ||

listed | Insertion | Advanced | ||

listing | lists | Containment | Advanced | |

locked by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

locking | locks | Containment | Advanced | |

mantles | Containment | Standard | ||

masked by | Insertion | Standard | ||

masking | masks | Containment | Standard | |

nabbed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

nabbing | nabs | Containment | Standard | |

nailed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

nailing | nails | Containment | Standard | |

netted by | Insertion | Standard | ||

netting | nets | Containment | Standard | |

nicked by | Insertion | Standard | ||

nicking | nicks | Containment | Standard | |

nipped by | Insertion | Standard | ||

nipping | nips | Containment | Standard | |

nobbled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

nobbling | nobbles | Containment | Standard | |

nursed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

nursing | nurses | Containment | Standard | |

occupied by | Containment | Standard | ||

occupying | occupies | Insertion | Standard | |

opened by | Containment | Advanced | ||

opening | opens | Insertion | Advanced | |

outside | Containment | Standard | ||

overtaking | overtakes | Containment | Standard | |

overwhelmed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

overwhelming | overwhelms | Containment | Standard | |

packed with | Containment | Standard | ||

packing | packs | Containment | Standard | |

part way through | Insertion | Standard | ||

parted by | Containment | Standard | ||

parting | parts | Insertion | Standard | |

patrolled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

patrolling | patrols | Containment | Standard | |

penetrated by | Containment | Standard | ||

penetrating | penetrates | Insertion | Standard | |

penned by | Insertion | Standard | ||

penning | pens | Containment | Standard | |

perambulating | perambulates | Containment | Advanced | |

picked up by | Insertion | Standard | ||

picking up | Containment | Standard | ||

pierced by | Containment | Standard | ||

piercing | pierces | Insertion | Standard | |

pinched by | Insertion | Standard | ||

pinching | pinches | Containment | Standard | |

pinned in | Insertion | Standard | ||

pinning | pins | Containment | Advanced | |

plugged by | Containment | Standard | ||

plugging | plugs | Insertion | Standard | |

pocketed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

pocketing | pockets | Containment | Standard | |

popped by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

popping | pops | Containment | Advanced | |

possessed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

possessing | possesses | Containment | Standard | |

pounded by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

pounding | pounds | Containment | Advanced | |

pressed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

pressing | presses | Containment | Standard | |

prisons | Containment | Advanced | ||

probed by | Containment | Standard | ||

probing | probes | Insertion | Standard | |

protected by | Insertion | Standard | ||

protecting | protects | Containment | Standard | |

pulled by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

pulling | pulls | Containment | Advanced | |

pursed by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

pursing | purses | Containment | Standard | |

put about | put round | Containment | Standard | |

put in | put into | Insertion | Standard | |

received by | Insertion | Standard | ||

receiving | receives | Containment | Standard | |

repressed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

repressing | represses | Containment | Standard | |

restrained by | Insertion | Standard | ||

restraining | restrains | Containment | Standard | |

restricted by | Insertion | Standard | ||

restricting | restricts | Containment | Standard | |

retained by | Insertion | Standard | ||

retaining | retains | Containment | Standard | |

ringing | rings | Containment | Standard | |

round | Containment | Standard | ||

rounded by | Insertion | Standard | ||

rounding | rounds | Containment | Standard | |

sandwiched by | Insertion | Standard | ||

sandwiches | Containment | Standard | ||

screened by | Insertion | Standard | ||

screening | screens | Containment | Standard | |

sealed by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

sealing | seals | Containment | Advanced | |

secured by | Insertion | Standard | ||

securing | secures | Containment | Standard | |

seized by | Insertion | Standard | ||

seizing | seizes | Containment | Standard | |

set about | Containment | Standard | ||

set in | Insertion | Standard | ||

shared by | Containment | Advanced | ||

sharing | shares | Insertion | Advanced | |

sheltered by | Insertion | Standard | ||

sheltering | shelters | Containment | Standard | |

shipped by | Insertion | Standard | ||

shipping | ships | Containment | Standard | |

shrouded by | Insertion | Standard | ||

shrouding | shrouds | Containment | Standard | |

skirted by | Insertion | Standard | ||

skirting | skirts | Containment | Standard | |

slipped into | Insertion | Standard | ||

smothered by | Insertion | Standard | ||

smothering | smothers | Containment | Standard | |

smouldering | smoulders | Containment | Advanced | |

smuggled by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

smuggling | smuggles | Containment | Advanced | |

snared by | Insertion | Standard | ||

snaring | snares | Containment | Standard | |

snuggling | snuggles | Containment | Standard | |

spanned by | Insertion | Standard | ||

spanning | spans | Containment | Standard | |

split by | Containment | Standard | ||

splitting | splits | Insertion | Standard | |

spread by | Containment | Advanced | ||

spreading | spreads | Insertion | Advanced | |

squashed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

squashing | squashes | Containment | Standard | |

squeezed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

squeezing | squeezes | Containment | Standard | |

stalled by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

stalling | stalls | Containment | Advanced | |

sticking | sticks | Insertion | Advanced | |

stifled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

stifling | stifles | Containment | Standard | |

stopped by | Containment | Advanced | ||

stopping | stops | Insertion | Advanced | |

stored in | Insertion | Standard | ||

storing | stores | Containment | Standard | |

stowed in | Insertion | Standard | ||

stowing | stows | Containment | Standard | |

straddled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

straddling | straddles | Containment | Standard | |

straining | strains | Containment | Advanced | |

stuck with | Containment | Advanced | ||

stuffed with | Containment | Standard | ||

stuffing | stuffs | Insertion | Standard | |

sucked by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

sucking | sucks | Containment | Advanced | |

suppressed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

suppressing | suppresses | Containment | Standard | |

surrounded by | Insertion | Standard | ||

surrounding | surrounds | Containment | Standard | |

swallowed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

swallowing | swallows | Containment | Standard | |

swathed in | Insertion | Standard | ||

swathing | swathes | Containment | Standard | |

tackled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

tackling | tackles | Containment | Standard | |

taken by | Insertion | Standard | ||

taken in by | Insertion | Standard | ||

taken on by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

taking | takes | Containment | Standard | |

taking in | takes in | Containment | Standard | |

taking on | takes on | Containment | Advanced | |

tapped by | Containment | Advanced | ||

tapping | taps | Insertion | Advanced | |

throttled by | Insertion | Standard | ||

throttling | throttles | Containment | Standard | |

thrown in | thrown into | Insertion | Standard | |

transfixed by | Containment | Standard | ||

transfixing | transfixes | Insertion | Standard | |

trapped in | Insertion | Standard | ||

trapping | traps | Containment | Standard | |

trousers | Containment | Standard | ||

tucked into | Insertion | Standard | ||

undoing | undoes | Insertion | Advanced | |

undone by | Containment | Advanced | ||

vices | Containment | Advanced | ||

wearing | wears | Insertion | Standard | |

wedged in | wedges | Insertion | Standard | |

wedged with | Containment | Standard | ||

wedges | Containment | Advanced | ||

welcomed by | Insertion | Standard | ||

welcoming | welcomes | Containment | Standard | |

wimples | Containment | Advanced | ||

winding | winds | Containment | Advanced | |

within | Insertion | Standard | ||

worn by | Containment | Standard | ||

wound by | Insertion | Advanced | ||

wrapped in | Insertion | Standard | ||

wrapping | wraps | Containment | Standard | |

wreathed in | Insertion | Standard |